BMW 7_aya the E38 series from 1994 to 2002
1. Introduction
1.1. About this Management
1.2. The BMW E38 cars - the summary
1.3. Identification numbers of the car
1.4. Acquisition of spare parts
1.5. Technology of service, tool and equipment of a workplace
1.6. Poddomkrachivaniye / posting and emergency transportation of the car
1.7. Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
1.8. Automobile chemicals, oils and lubricants
1.9. Diagnostics of malfunctions
2. Governing bodies and methods of operation
3. Settings and routine maintenance of the car
4. Engine
5. Cooling systems of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
6. A power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
7. Systems of electric equipment of the engine
8. Manual box of gear shifting and coupling
9. Automatic transmission
10. Cardan and power shafts, reducer, differential and stupichny assemblies
11. Brake system
12. Suspension bracket and steering
13. Body
14. Onboard electric equipment
15. Schemes of electric equipment



1-9-diagnostika-neispravnostejj.html

1.9. Diagnostics of malfunctions

The description of diagnostics of electronic control systems and codes of malfunctions are provided in the Head Sistemy of electric equipment of the engine.

In this section the simplest scheme of clarification of the reasons of the malfunctions and refusals happening in knots and systems of the car is offered. Refusals and their possible reasons are broken into groups on a sign of the relation to certain components or systems of the car, such as the engine, the cooling system, etc., besides, in the text references to chapters and sections concerning these problems are given.

Remember that the successful completion of search of causes of defect is defined by integrity of a complex of good knowledge and patient, systematic approach to a problem research. It is necessary to move always from simple to difficult, to bring each check to the logical end and to try not to pass the obvious facts - everyone can forget to fill fuel in the fuel tank or to leave included in lighting fixtures for the night.

And, at last, it is always necessary to try to make a clear picture of development of malfunction and to take the corresponding steps for prevention of a recurrence. If the failure of electric equipment happened for a cause of infringement of quality of contact, check a condition of all other contacts and electric sockets of system at the same time. If the same safety lock fused several times in a row, there is no sense in its further replacement - try to find out a cause of failure. Remember that failure of a minor component can be a sign of violation of functioning of more important knot or the whole system.

Engine

Indispensable conditions of start of any petrol engine are serviceability of supply of air-fuel mix in cylinders and adequacy of sparking on spark plugs.

First of all it is necessary to make sure of serviceability of supply of fuel.

To define whether the spark is formed, turn out spark plugs, insert them into tips and separately apply to weight. At the same time it is not necessary to hold a wire or a tip hands, - use the isolated flat-nose pliers. Ask the assistant to start the engine. If the spark is absent, try to define a cause of failure.

The engine is not turned in attempts of its start

  1. Plugs of the battery are oxidized or fastening of tips of wires on them weakened.
  2. The battery is discharged or faulty. If tips of wires are not oxidized and reliably fixed on battery plugs, turn the ignition key in the provision of "ON", then include headlights and/or screenwashes, - if they do not function, - the battery is discharged.
  3. Transmission it is inexact it is established in situation "P" (AT) or on neutral transfer (RKPP), or coupling is squeezed not completely out.
  4. Gap in a chain of system of start.
  5. The gear wheel of a starter is jammed in a gear wreath of a driving disk / flywheel.
  6. The traction relay of a starter is faulty.
  7. The starter is faulty.
  8. The ignition switch is faulty.

The engine is turned, but not started

  1. Start is incorrectly made (see the Section Methods of operation both auxiliary systems of the Head Governing bodies and methods of operation).
  2. The engine immobilizator is faulty or is not disconnected.
  3. The emergency switch of the fuel pump is faulty.
  4. The fuel tank is empty, or low-quality fuel is filled.
  5. The air filter is strongly polluted. Leak of vacuum in elements of air supply, malfunction in a control system of injection of fuel and ignition takes place.
  6. The battery is discharged (the engine is turned too slowly).
  7. Plugs of the battery are oxidized or fastening of tips of wires on them weakened.

Petrol engine

  1. The fuel pump is faulty, or its relay is damaged, - aurally check turning on of the pump at inclusion of ignition.
  2. Components of system of ignition are damaged or excessively moistened.
  3. Spark plugs are worn-out or faulty, or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  4. Gap in a chain of system of start.
  5. The safety lock of the control unit of the engine is damaged, it is faulty a control system of the engine, any of sensors.
  6. Low pressure of a compression.

Diesel engine

  1. The engine is not heated-up: check serviceability of functioning of system of preheat.
  2. Adjustment of the beginning of supply of fuel is brought down. Check, make adjustment.
  3. Nozzles are faulty. Check. Give consistently cap nuts - at an otdavaniye of a nut of the faulty cylinder turns of the engine will not fall.
  4. The fuel pump of high pressure (FPHP) is faulty. Establish obviously serviceable TNVD for check.
  5. On an electromagnetic (em) the locking valve there is no tension. Connect to the switch the voltmeter or a sampler on a light-emitting diode. Include ignition. The light-emitting diode has to light up. Otherwise it is necessary to find break of an electrical wiring and to eliminate it.
  6. It is faulty Ý/m the locking valve. Check reliability of fastening Ý/m the switch, check contacts. Switch on and off ignition. In the switch the click has to sound.
  7. Damage to the line of supply of fuel or air to lines takes place:
    1. Pipelines or hoses are mechanically damaged or littered. Clear fuel pipelines and remove air from lines and the filter;
    2. The fuel filter is littered. Replace the filtering element;
    3. It is necessary to check the filter and pipelines for availability of ice or wax in the winter. Put the car in the heated garage, add to system of gasoline;
    4. Ventilation of a tank or the mesh filter of a toplivozabornik is littered. Clean.

The starter functions without engine provorachivaniye

  1. The starter gear wheel is jammed.
  2. Teeths of a gear wheel of a starter or wreath of a flywheel / a driving disk are worn-out or damaged.

Start of the cold engine is complicated

See also Section the Cold engine is started badly, works unstably.

  1. Low level of a charge of the battery.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system, or electric equipment is broken.

Start of the hot engine is complicated

See also Section Heated-up Engine it is badly started, works unstably.

  1. Passability of the air filter is broken.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system, or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Fuel does not arrive to fuel injectors.
  4. Insufficient compression in cylinders.

Gearing of a starter happens is too noisy or with difficulty

  1. Teeths of a gear wheel of a starter or wreath of a flywheel / a driving disk are worn-out or damaged.
  2. Are lost, or bolts of fastening of a starter are insufficiently tightened.

The engine is started, but at once becomes deaf

  1. The engine immobilizator is faulty.
  2. The electrical wiring is faulty, or fastening of wires on plugs of the coil of ignition or the generator weakened.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  4. Basic installations of the control unit of the engine (ECM) are broken.
  5. Damage to system of release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases (FG) takes place.
  6. Losses of depression on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.

Stability of operation of the engine on single turns is broken

Petrol engine

  1. Depression losses take place. Make sure of reliability of tightening of fixture, check the fact and quality of fastening on the unions on the inlet pipeline of all vacuum hoses. Wiretap the working engine by means of a stethoscope or a piece of a fuel hose - existence of the hissing sound demonstrates leak existence. Not less effective use of soap solution for check.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Passability of the valve of system of the operated ventilation of a case (PCV) is broken.
  4. Passability of the air filter is broken.
  5. The fuel pump does not provide giving of enough fuel to injectors.
  6. Leaks through laying of a head of cylinders take place, - measure a compression in engine cylinders (see the Engine).
  7. Working ledges of cams of the camshaft are worn-out.

Diesel engine

  1. Quality of connections of fuel hoses with TNVD and the fuel filter is broken. Replace fuel hoses, fix them by collars, tighten screws of angular connections.
  2. Fastening of TNVD is mechanically damaged or weakened.
  3. Are mixed by junctions of the returnable pipeline and pipeline of supply of fuel.
  4. Damage to the line of supply of fuel takes place:
    1. Pipelines or hoses are mechanically damaged or littered. Clear fuel pipelines;
    2. The fuel filter is littered. Replace the filtering element;
    3. It is necessary to check the filter and pipelines for availability of ice or wax in the winter. Put the car in the heated garage, add to system of gasoline;
    4. Ventilation of a tank or the mesh filter of a toplivozabornik is littered. Clean.
  5. Adjustment of the beginning of supply of fuel is brought down. Check, make adjustment.
  6. Nozzles are faulty. Check. Turn off consistently cap nuts - at an otvorachivaniye of a nut of the faulty cylinder turns of the engine will not fall.
  7. TNVD is faulty. Establish obviously serviceable TNVD for check.

Admissions in operation of cylinders on single turns take place

  1. Spark plugs are worn-out or polluted or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  2. Malfunction of components of a power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  3. It is faulty In/in an electrical wiring.
  4. Low-quality fuel is filled, or passability of the fuel filter is broken.
  5. Losses of depression in the inlet pipeline or through hose connections take place.
  6. The low or unevenly distributed compression in cylinders.
  7. Work of a control system of the engine is broken.

Admissions in operation of cylinders of the engine at the movement of the car on transfer take place

  1. The fuel filter is blocked or pollution of a power supply system takes place.
  2. Spark plugs are faulty or polluted or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  3. Malfunction of components of a power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  4. It is faulty In/in an electrical wiring.
  5. Components of system of decrease in toxicity of OG are faulty.
  6. The low or unevenly distributed compression in cylinders.
  7. The system of ignition is faulty.
  8. Losses of depression on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.

The engine spontaneously becomes deaf

  1. Adjustment of turns of idling is broken.
  2. Passability of the fuel filter is broken, or moisture or dirt got to a power supply system.
  3. The refusal of components / information sensors of a power supply system takes place.
  4. Components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases are faulty.
  5. Spark plugs are faulty or polluted or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  6. Losses of depression on the case of a throttle or through vacuum hoses take place.

The engine does not develop full capacity

  1. Malfunction of components of a power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  2. The air cleaner is littered.
  3. Spark plugs are faulty or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  4. The ignition coil is faulty.
  5. The ATF level fell (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car).
  6. Coupling/AT revolves.
  7. The fuel filter is blocked and/or dirt/moisture got to a power supply system.
  8. Low-quality fuel is filled.
  9. The adjusting valve of a turbocompressor is damaged.
  10. The low or unevenly distributed compression in cylinders.

In addition for the diesel engine

  1. Uneven supply of fuel from TNVD on cylinders. Adjust on the heated-up engine.
  2. The moment of the beginning of supply of TNVD fuel is incorrectly determined. Adjust.
  3. The fuel filter or TNVD (nozzle) is littered. Wash out the preliminary filter, replace an element of the filter of thin cleaning, clean a spray or replace the pump (nozzle).
  4. Adjustment of the maximum frequency of rotation of a bent shaft is broken.

There are cottons in system of an admission or shots in system of release

  1. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  2. Defect in a secondary contour of system of ignition takes place (destruction of insulators of spark plugs or damage In/in wires).
  3. The system of injection of fuel needs adjustment, or its components are excessively worn-out.
  4. Losses of depression on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.
  5. Gets jammed valves.
  6. The connection order In/in wires is broken.

At the movement with acceleration or uphill there are detonation sounds

  1. Low-quality fuel is filled.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Spark plugs not of that type are established.
  4. The basic ECM installations are broken.
  5. The detonation sensor is faulty.
  6. Depression losses take place.

The engine continues to work after turning of a key in the provision of "OFF"

  1. Idling turns are excessively high.
  2. Malfunction of electric equipment or components of a control system of the engine takes place.
  3. The valve of a purge of an adsorber of system of catching of vapors of fuel (EVAP) is faulty.
  4. High working temperature of the engine (the OZh level fell, the thermostat is faulty, the radiator is blocked or the water pump is faulty).
  5. Tightness of injectors is broken.

The diesel engine smokes

  1. Black smoke:
    1. The air cleaner is polluted. Replace the filtering element;
    2. Inappropriate fuel is applied. Wash out a tank and replace fuel;
    3. The moment of the beginning of supply of TNVD fuel is incorrectly determined.
  2. Blue smoke:
    1. Burning of oil in the combustion chamber owing to wear of piston rings, high level of oil in the air cleaner, wear of epiploons in covers of a turbocompressor, formation of thinnesses in laying between a block case and a turbocompressor. Repair the engine, modify oil level, replace epiploons, tighten bolts of fastening of a turbocompressor or replace laying;
    2. Fuel to one of nozzles does not move. Check on heating of final branch pipes of a collector;
    3. Bad dispersion of fuel a nozzle because of malfunction of the valve or break of a spray. Grind in the valve or replace a nozzle.
  3. White or brown smoke:
    1. Low temperature in the cooling system. Check the thermostat;
    2. Bad work of nozzles owing to wear or break of a spray. Replace a spray.

Engine electric equipment

Decrease in capacity or insufficient charge of the battery

  1. The generator drive belt is worn-out or damaged, or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  2. Level of electrolyte is insufficient or the battery is strongly discharged.
  3. Plugs of the battery are oxidized or fastening of tips of wires on them weakened.
  4. The generator does not provide the required charging current.
  5. Gap in a chain of an electrical wiring of a charging contour.
  6. Short circuit on "mass" of an electrical wiring creates continuous leakage of the current developed by the battery.
  7. Internal defect of the battery takes place.

The control lamp of a charge does not die away at increase in turns

  1. The tension of a driving belt is weakened.
  2. The regulator of tension and/or the generator is damaged.
  3. Generator brushes are worn-out.
  4. The wire between the generator and the regulator of tension is damaged.
  5. The combination of devices is faulty.

The control lamp of a charge does not light up when turning a key in the provision of "ON"

  1. The control lamp failed.
  2. The generator is faulty.
  3. Defect of the printed circuit board, conducting in the block of a combination of devices or the boss of a lamp takes place.

The control lamp of a charge does not die away when turning a key in the provision of "OFF"

  1. Diodes are punched.

Starter

Contact plugs of an electrical wiring have to be reliably fixed and are not oxidized!

  1. If the starter is not turned, at first it is necessary to make sure that at the plug No. 50 of the traction relay there is tension (at least 10 V). At negative results check a condition of an electrical wiring of a contour of current of a starter.
  2. For check of serviceability of operation of a starter at a full tension of the battery perform the following operations:
    1. Not including transfers, turn a key in the provision of "ON";
    2. Peremknite starter plugs 30 and 50 wire with a section not less than 4 mm2.
  3. If the starter works faultlessly, the cause of defect should be looked for in wires to a starter. If the starter does not earn, it should be checked in the removed state.

The starter does not rotate when turning a key in situation "START"

  1. The battery is discharged.
  2. Peremknite starter plugs 30 and 50: if it rotates, check the wire 50 brought to the ignition lock for break, also estimate a starter switch condition.
  3. The weight wire is torn off, or quality of its terminal connection is broken.
  4. Weakening of current owing to violation of quality or oxidation of contact connections.
  5. There is no tension on the plug of the 50th traction relay as a result of break of an electrical wiring, or damage of the switch of a starter.

The starter rotates slowly and does not turn a bent shaft

  1. The battery is discharged.
  2. Summer oil is filled in.
  3. Passing of current owing to low-quality contacts is complicated.
  4. Coal brushes do not adjoin to a collector, jam in guides, are worn-out, broken, greasy or polluted.
  5. Insufficient distance between brushes and a collector.
  6. The collector in grooves or burned and was made oily.
  7. There is no tension on the plug 50 (at least 8 V).
  8. The bearing is broken.
  9. The traction relay is faulty.

The starter "grabs", but provides an engine provorachivaniye only with breakthroughs

  1. The gear wheel drive is faulty.
  2. The gear wheel is polluted.
  3. The gear wreath of a driving disk is damaged.

The gear wheel of a starter does not leave gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel / a driving disk

  1. Gear wheel drive components are polluted or damaged.
  2. The traction relay is faulty.
  3. The returnable spring weakened or became torn.

The starter continues to work after an ignition key otpuskaniye

  1. The traction relay is jammed, - immediately switch off ignition and replace the traction relay.
  2. The ignition lock is not switched-off, - switch-off the battery, replace the lock.

Power supply system

Fuel consumption is excessive

  1. The air filter is polluted or blocked.
  2. Pressure of a rating of tires is not enough or tires not of that size are installed.
  3. The engine has mechanical damages. Check a compression, in case of need make the corresponding recovery repair.
  4. Turns of idling and the maximum turns of a bent shaft are excessively high.
  5. Malfunction of components of a power supply system, electric equipment or electronic control takes place.
  6. Leaks in system of an admission of air.
  7. Damages to system of release and decrease in toxicity of OG take place.
  8. In addition for the diesel engine: Contamination of the returnable pipeline. Blow air the returnable pipeline from TNVD to the fuel tank.

Leak of fuel and/or a smell of gasoline takes place

  1. Leaks in lines of supply of fuel or ventilating lines take place.
  2. The fuel tank is overflowed. You make gas station only before automatic shutdown of the gun.
  3. Take place leak/evaporation from lines of power supply systems and decrease in toxicity of OG.

The engine is not started

  1. At inclusion of a starter the fuel pump does not work (noise of its work is not heard). Slightly knock on a pump housing to release the jammed detail. Check serviceability of giving of tension for the pump (check serviceability of a safety lock and reliability of fastening of contact plugs of the corresponding electrical wiring).
  2. The relay of the fuel pump is faulty.
  3. Valves of injectors stuck. Check injectors, if necessary replace. Check giving of tension for injectors.
  4. There is no signal from the sensor of ignition or the ECT sensor. Check a condition of its electrical wiring, carry out a survey of memory of the OBD system.
  5. Fuel pipelines are damaged, littered or untight, there are defects of hoses.
  6. The fuel filter is littered.
  7. To the inlet highway as a result of violation of tightness excess air podsasyvatsya.
  8. Vacuum pipelines are damaged, or violation of tightness of their landing takes place.
  9. The fuel pressure regulator is damaged, - check residual pressure.
  10. The sensor of provision of a butterfly valve (TPS) is damaged.
  11. There is no ECM food.
  12. Lines of ventilation of the fuel tank are filled, the filter in a tank is littered.
  13. Availability of ice or wax in the filter or pipelines of the diesel engine.
  14. The system of preheat does not work.
  15. The valve of a cut-off of fuel of the diesel engine is damaged.
  16. The moment of the beginning of supply of fuel is brought down.
  17. Nozzles of the diesel engine are damaged. Give in turn cap nuts and check whether the corresponding cylinder works.
  18. TNVD is faulty.

The cold engine is started badly, works unstably

  1. The maintenance of CO does not conform to standard requirements, - perform the corresponding measurement, check idling turns.
  2. The ECT sensor is faulty.
  3. Pressure of fuel does not correspond to the required value.
  4. To the inlet highway as a result of violation of tightness excess air podsasyvatsya.

The heated-up engine is badly started, works unstably

  1. The system of an admission of air is untight. Check inlet system. For this purpose leave the engine to idle and moisten places of consolidations and connection on an inlet path with gasoline. If speed for a short time increases, eliminate untight places.
  2. The backpressure valve of the fuel pump is damaged.
  3. Leaks in fuel system.
  4. Elevated pressure of fuel in a power supply system.
  5. Malfunction of the EVAP system.
  6. The returnable fuel-supply line to a tank is hammered or crumpled.
  7. Valves of injectors stuck. Check injectors, if necessary replace. Check giving of tension for injectors.
  8. There is no signal from the sensor of ignition of Hall or the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid. Check a condition of the corresponding electrical wiring, carry out a survey of the OBD II system.
  9. To the inlet highway as a result of violation of tightness excess air podsasyvatsya.
  10. Pressure regulator is damaged, - check residual pressure.
  11. The TPS sensor is damaged.
  12. There is no ECM food.

The engine works with interruptions

  1. Connections of an electrical wiring of the fuel pump are broken from time to time. Check sockets of an electrical wiring and safety locks of the fuel pump, MAF sensor and relay of the fuel pump.
  2. Poor quality of fuel, formation of steam traffic jams.
  3. Weak service of fuel.
  4. The fuel filter is faulty.
  5. The fuel pump is faulty.
  6. Injectors are faulty.
  7. It is faulty a lambda probe, violations in a chain of quality management of mix or there is no heating a lambda probe.
  8. TPS is faulty.
  9. The final collector or reception pipe of system of production of the fulfilled gases is damaged (there are leakages of OG).
  10. Malfunction of the EVAP system.
  11. Valves of injectors stuck. Check injectors, if necessary replace. Check giving of tension for injectors.
  12. There is no signal from the sensor of ignition of Hall or the ECT sensor. Check an electrical wiring, carry out a survey of memory of ECM on existence of codes of malfunctions.
  13. To the inlet highway as a result of violation of tightness excess air podsasyvatsya.
  14. Vacuum pipelines are damaged or untight
  15. Pressure regulator is damaged, - check residual pressure.
  16. There is no ECM food.

The engine works with interruptions on the transitional modes and in the idling mode

  1. The system of an admission of air is untight. Check connections of inlet system. Start the engine and moisten with gasoline of connection of components of the soaking-up path. If engine turns quickly increase, remove a tightness cause of infringement.
  2. Incorrect adjustment of idling. Check TPS and a lambda adjustment.

The hot engine is not started

  1. Incorrect adjustment of contents WITH. Check contents WITH and idling.
  2. Too high pressure in fuel system, - check fuel pressure, if necessary replace pressure regulator.
  3. The returnable pipeline between the regulator of pressure and the fuel tank is littered or bent. Clean or replace the pipeline.
  4. The engine temperature sensor is faulty.
  5. Tightness of a power supply system is broken.
  6. Tightness of an inlet air path is broken.

The engine works after switching off

  1. Injectors are untight. Check injectors.
  2. The fuel cut-off valve does not work at the diesel engine.

Lubrication system

The control lamp does not burn when turning a key in the provision of "ON"

  1. The oil pressure sensor is faulty. Include ignition, disconnect a wire from the sensor and close it on "weight", - if the lamp lights up, replace the sensor.
  2. On the sensor tension, contacts of a korrozirovana does not move, - check a condition of the corresponding electrical wiring.
  3. The control lamp is faulty.
  4. The combination of devices is faulty.

The control lamp does not die away after start of the engine

  1. Oil is overheated. If the control lamp dies away after gas supply, it is required to do nothing.

The control lamp does not die away after gas supply, or lights up during the movement

  1. Oil level fell.
  2. Short circuit of an electrical wiring of the sensor of level of oil takes place.
  3. The sensor is faulty.

Too low pressure of oil on all turns

  1. Oil level fell.
  2. The mesh filter of a maslozabornik in the case pallet is littered.
  3. The oil pump is worn-out.
  4. Bearings of a bent shaft are damaged.

Too low pressure of oil on small turns

  1. The reducing valve stuck abroach because of pollution.

Too high pressure of oil with a frequency of rotation of the engine over 2000 rpm

  1. The reducing valve does not open because of pollution.

Cooling system

Overheat

  1. Level of cooling liquid fell.
  2. The belt of the drive of the water pump is worn-out or damaged or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  3. Internal channels of a radiator are blocked or it is polluted the front grille (is blocked).
  4. The thermostat is faulty.
  5. Blades of a krylchatka of the fan are broken or burst.
  6. The coupling of turning on of the fan is faulty.
  7. The index of temperature of the cooling liquid (CL) is faulty.
  8. The water pump is faulty.
  9. Does not hold pressure a radiator cover, - make check of a cover under pressure.

Overcooling

  1. The thermostat is faulty.
  2. Indications of the measuring instrument of temperature of OZh are inexact.

External leak of cooling liquid

  1. Hoses are damaged or destroyed as a result of material aging or their fastening on unions weakened.
  2. Epiploons of the water pump are spoiled, - cooling liquid exudes through a control opening in a pump housing.
  3. Leaks from internal channels of a radiator or the tank take place.
  4. Leaks through a drain stopper of the engine or release traffic jams of water galleries take place.

Internal leak of cooling liquid

Internal leakages of OZh usually come to light by check of a condition of motive oil. Examine an edge of the measuring probe and internal surfaces of a cover (covers) of cylinders on existence of traces of water and foaming of oil.

  1. Leaks through laying of a head of cylinders take place, – check the cooling system pressure.
  2. There are cracks on walls of cylinders or in casting of a head.

There are losses of cooling liquid

  1. In system the excessive quantity of OZh is filled.
  2. OZh boils away as a result of an engine overheat.
  3. Internal or external leakages of OZh take place.
  4. The radiator cover is faulty, - check a cover pressure.

Circulation of cooling liquid is broken

  1. The water pump does not function properly.
  2. Passability of the cooling system is broken - wash out it and fill with fresh liquid. If necessary remove a radiator and carry out its obratnopotochny washing.
  3. The driving belt of the water pump is worn-out or damaged or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  4. The thermostat is jammed.

Heater

The fan of a heater does not work

  1. The safety lock э / the fan motor is faulty.
  2. The fan switch is faulty, - check whether tension to preresistors moves, remove and check the fan switch.
  3. The fan motor is faulty э/. Check whether tension at the included ignition and the closed fan switch moves on it, - if tension moves, replace the motor.

The fan of a heater does not work at one of steps

  1. The preresistor is faulty.

The heater is not switched off by the regulator

  1. The switch is faulty.
  2. Cables of the adjusting mixing gate are damaged or badly mobile.

Too low power of heating

  1. Level of cooling liquid is insufficient.
  2. Handles of management of a heater have the heavy course, is faulty, - check assembly of management, if necessary replace the corresponding driving cable.

Noise in the field of the heater fan

  1. Dirt, leaves got, - remove the fan and clean it, clear the air channel.
  2. Balancing of a krylchatka is broken, the bearing is damaged.

Coupling

Coupling is not switched off (the control lever of RKPP is not transferred freely to the provision of transfer of a backing and back at the coupling pedal which is squeezed out to a floor)

  1. The clutch plate is bent or damaged (see the Head Kardanny and power shafts, a reducer, differential and stupichny assemblies).

Coupling revolves (turns of the engine raise without increase in speed of the movement of the car)

  1. The clutch plate is greasy or its frictional slips are wiped. Remove coupling (see the Head Kardanny and power shafts, a reducer, differential and stupichny assemblies) and check a condition of its components.
  2. The clutch plate was not earned extra properly. For final extra earnings of a new disk from 30 to 40 normal starts of the car can be required.
  3. It is worn-out press a coupling disk/basket (see the Head Kardanny and power shafts, a reducer, differential and stupichny assemblies).

At inclusion of coupling there is a strong vibration

  1. The clutch plate is greasy. Remove coupling and check a condition of its components. Eliminate all revealed leaks.
  2. Vents of a nave of the conducted disk (clutch plate) are worn-out. Remove coupling and check a condition of its components.
  3. It is bent press a disk/basket of coupling or a flywheel. Remove coupling and check a condition of its components and a flywheel.

Breakthroughs during the coupling work

  1. Damage of support of the engine and transmission. Check, if necessary replace.
  2. Weakening of fastening of the transmission to a suspension bracket. Tighten fastening bolts.
  3. Uneven prileganiye of a press disk. Replace a coupling basket.
  4. The bent shaft is not centered with the transmission. Check centering.

Squeal or roar arise at full inclusion of coupling (the pedal is released)

  1. The release bearing of coupling is jammed. Remove coupling and check a condition of the bearing. Remove all agnails and teases, and grease the bearing before installation into place.

Squeal or roar arise at full switching off of coupling (the pedal is squeezed out)

  1. The release bearing is worn-out or damaged (see the Head Kardanny and power shafts, a reducer, differential and stupichny assemblies).
  2. Springs (or diaphragm petals) a press disk in a coupling basket are worn-out or damaged (see the Head Kardanny and power shafts, a reducer, differential and stupichny assemblies).

The pedal of coupling remains squeezed out to a floor after its otpuskaniye

  1. The piston of the main or working cylinder of coupling is jammed. Damages of a hydraulic system of coupling or release bearing. Check a state, if necessary remove coupling components.

Manual Box of Gear Shifting (MBGS)

At RKPP established on neutral transfer in operating time of the engine extraneous noises take place

  1. The bearing of a main shaft is worn-out.
  2. The bearing of the leading gear wheel of the conducted shaft is damaged.
  3. Bearings of an intermediate shaft are worn-out.
  4. Washers of adjustment of an axial side play of an intermediate shaft are worn-out or damaged.

Extraneous noises take place in any provision of RKPP

  1. Any of the above-mentioned reasons and/or:
  2. In RKPP the insufficient amount of gearbox oil is filled in (its level fell).

Extraneous noises arise on any concrete transfer

  1. Teeth of a gear wheel of this transfer are worn-out, damaged or chopped off.
  2. The synchronizer of this transfer is worn-out or damaged.

There are "soskakivany" RKPP from the highest transfer

  1. Between the boat of a box and the engine dirt got or the box was displaced in relation to the engine.

At gear shifting there are complications

  1. It is squeezed not completely out coupling (is switched off).
  2. Draft of switching is damaged, its fastening weakened or adjustment is broken. Make careful check of a condition of components, in case of need replace defective.

Leak of gearbox oil takes place

  1. In RKPP the excessive amount of gearbox oil is filled. In case of need merge surplus.
  2. Differential epiploons need replacement.

Automatic Transmission (AT)

In view of complexity of a design of AT it is desirable to make diagnostics of its malfunctions and repairs of components in a workshop of car service.

The common problems connected with functioning of the mechanism of switching

  1. It is possible to carry the following to number of the refusals connected with violation of adjustment of draft of switching:
    • Start of the engine is possible at provisions of transmission, excellent from "Р" and "N";
    • Indications of the indicator of provision of transmission differ from really chosen transfer;
    • The car moves at the transmission established in situation "P" or "N";
    • Transfers switch hardly or randomly.
  2. Make adjustment of draft of gear shifting.

Transmission revolves, switches hardly, publishes extraneous noises or does not provide the movement of the car at installation on one of transfers

  1. There is a set of the possible reasons of the problems listed in heading, however under competence of the amateur mechanic only one of them - the wrong level of transmission liquid (ATF) gets.
  2. Before driving away the car in a workshop of car service check the level and a condition of ATF. Modify the ATF level or replace it.

Leak of transmission liquid (ATF) takes place

  1. ATF has dark red color. Traces of its leaks should not be confused to traces of motive oil which can be demolished on a transmission case by the running air stream.
  2. For identification and localization of a source of leak first of all remove all traces of dirt and lubricant from the transmission boat. Use suitable degreaser and/or make steam cleaning. Then make on the car a short trip at a small speed (that traces of leak did not communicate the running stream far from its source). Stop, the car and by visual survey establish to a poddomkratta a leak source. Most often act as those:
    • The transmission case pallet, - tighten fixing bolts and/or replace laying of the pallet;
    • Gulf ATF tube, - replace rubber consolidation in the place of an entrance of a tube to a transmission case;
    • The ATF lines, - tighten nipple connections or replace lines;
    • The ventilating tube, - transmission is crowded and/or water got to it.

ATF has brown color or smells of ashes

  1. The ATF level is insufficient.

The kickdown mode does not join by full pressing a pedal (the low gear does not join)

  1. The ATF level fell.
  2. The control system of the engine is faulty.
  3. The sensor switch or its electrical wiring is faulty.
  4. Adjustment of a driving cable of the selector is broken.

The engine is not started at any position of the selector or also "R" is started in provisions, excellent from "Р"

  1. Adjustment of the sensor switch of permission of start is broken.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of a control system of the engine is broken.
  3. Adjustment of a cable of the selector is broken.

Transmission revolves, breakthroughs or noise at gear shifting. The car does not move at inclusion of the D or R modes

  1. The ATF level fell.
  2. The sensor or its electrical wiring is faulty.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of a control system of the engine is broken.

Bridges

Extraneous noises

  1. Usual road noise, - adjustment do not give in.
  2. Noise of tires, - check a condition of protectors and pressure of a rating of tires.
  3. Bearings of wheels are worn-out or damaged, or the effort of their tightening weakened.

Vibrations

  1. Check a condition of bearings of wheels, serially poddomkrachivy the corresponding corner of the car and rotating a wheel manually. Listen at the same time to the sounds proceeding from the bearing. Remove bearings and check their state.

Oil leak

  1. Epiploons of differentials are damaged.

Brake system

Before coming to final conclusion about existence of problems with the brake system make sure that tires are in satisfactory condition and are beefy with the required pressure, adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels is not broken and the car is not loaded unevenly.

The increased brake pedal course

  1. The working contour of a brake path is damaged, - check system for leaks.

The pedal of a brake springs and fails

  1. Air got to the brake highway, - pump over system.
  2. Liquid level fell in the GTTs tank, - make the corresponding adjustment, pump over system.
  3. Formation of vials of steam. It is shown, mainly, at big load of brakes. Replace brake fluid, remove air from system.

Decrease in effect of braking, pedal fails

  1. Tightness of a hydraulic path is broken.
  2. Cuffs in the main thing or working brake cylinders are damaged.
  3. Rubber laying is damaged. Repair a support.

Bad braking, despite big effort of pressing of a pedal

  1. Brake slips are greasy.
  2. The improper or hardened blocks are established.
  3. The amplifier of brakes is faulty.
  4. Brake shoes are worn-out.

When braking the car takes away aside

  1. Pressure of a rating of tires does not correspond to demanded.
  2. Protectors are unevenly worn-out.
  3. Brake slips are greasy.
  4. On one axis different brake shoes are established.
  5. Brake shoes are excessively worn-out.
  6. Mines of supports are polluted.
  7. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  8. Blocks are unevenly worn-out.

Spontaneous braking

  1. The compensation opening in the main brake cylinder (MBC) is littered.
  2. The gap between a driving rod and the GTTs piston is insufficient.

Brakes heat up during the movement

  1. The compensation opening in the main brake cylinder is littered.
  2. The gap between a driving rod and the GTTs piston is insufficient.

Brakes shiver

  1. Blocks of inadequate type are established.
  2. Brake disk in places корродирован.
  3. The beating of a brake disk is excessively big.

Brake shoes do not depart from a brake disk, the wheel is hardly turned manually

  1. Corrosion in cylinders of brake supports. Repair or replace a support.

Uneven wear of blocks

  1. Blocks of inappropriate type are established. Replace blocks.
  2. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  3. The piston stroke is complicated.
  4. Tightness of a path of the brake system is broken.

Wedge-shaped wear of brake shoes

  1. The brake disk rotates not parallel to a support.
  2. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of the piston is broken.

Scratch of brakes

  1. Often the reason in atmospheric influence (humidity of air). If the scratch appears after the long parking at the increased humidity and then vanishes, it is not necessary to do anything.
  2. Blocks of inappropriate type are established.
  3. The brake disk rotates not parallel to a support.
  4. The mine of a support is polluted.
  5. Springs of fastening of blocks are bent.
  6. Press springs are stretched.

Brake pedal pulsation

  1. Sign of normal operation of ABS.
  2. The beating of a brake disk is excessively big.
  3. The brake disk rotates not parallel to a support.

The control lamp of ABS lights up during the movement

  1. Supply voltage (lower than 10 V) is not enough. Check tension. Check whether the control lamp of the generator after start of the engine dies away. If everything is all right, check a generator drive belt.
  2. Malfunction of ABS takes place, - check a state and reliability of fixing of terminal connection of mass of the returnable pump (in the hydromodulator).

Suspension bracket and steering

The car takes away at the movement in one of the parties

  1. Tires are pumped unevenly up.
  2. Defect of tires takes place.
  3. Components of a suspension bracket or steering are excessively worn-out.
  4. Carrying out adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels is required.
  5. Forward brake mechanisms are taken.

Breakthroughs, pulling or vibrations take place

  1. Balancing of wheels is broken or ovality of disks appeared.
  2. Bearings of wheels are worn-out, the effort of their tightening weakened or adjustment is broken.
  3. Racks shock-absorbers or other components of a suspension bracket are worn-out or damaged.

Excessive rocking car "/zaryvaniye" his nose on turns takes place or when braking

  1. Suspension bracket racks are faulty.
  2. Suspension bracket components are damaged.

Too hardly the steering wheel rotates

  1. Excessively liquid level fell in the tank of the hydraulic booster of steering (GUR).
  2. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  3. Hinges of the steering drive are insufficiently greased.
  4. Adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  5. GUR does not develop the required power.

The excessive side play of steering takes place

  1. The effort of tightening of bearings of forward wheels weakened.
  2. Components of a suspension bracket or steering are excessively worn-out.

GUR does not develop due effort

  1. It is worn-out, or the driving belt of the pump GUR is damaged, or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  2. Excessively GUR liquid level fell.
  3. Passability of hoses or lines of hydraulic system is broken.
  4. Air got to GUR, - pump over system.

Excessive wear of protectors takes place (not in one some area)

  1. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Balancing of wheels is broken.
  3. Disks of wheels are damaged.
  4. Components of a suspension bracket or steering are excessively worn-out.

Excessive wear of protectors on an outer edge takes place

  1. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Turns are too sharply made.
  3. Adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels (excessive convergence) is broken.
  4. The suspension bracket lever is bent or twisted.

Excessive wear of protectors on an inner edge takes place

  1. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Adjustment of angles of installation of forward wheels is broken (divergence).
  3. Components of steering are damaged or their fastening weakened.

Local wear of a protector takes place

  1. Balancing of wheels is broken.
  2. Disks are damaged or bent.
  3. Defect of tires takes place.

Defects of brushes of a screen wiper

Slipping

  1. Rubber working elements are polluted.
  2. Edges of brushes are shabby, rubber working elements are worn-out or broken off.

In the field of cleaning the water remains gather in drops at once

  1. The windshield is polluted by varnish polish or oil.

The brush clears unilaterally - in one party well, in another is not present

  1. The rubber working element has unilateral wear.
  2. The lever of a screen wiper is twisted, the brush not precisely adjoins to glass.

Crude surfaces

  1. Reliability of fixing of a working element in a brush frame is broken.
  2. The brush adjoins to glass unevenly.
  3. Pressing force the lever is too small, - slightly grease hinges of levers of a screen wiper and spring or install the new lever.

Defects of tires

Strong wear of the tire on both parties of a working surface

  1. Too low pressure in tires.

Strong wear of the tire in the middle of a working surface on all circle of a protector

  1. Too high pressure in tires.

Uneven wear of a protector

  1. Static and dynamic disbalance of a wheel, perhaps, owing to an excessive side beating of a disk, too big side play in the bearing hinges.

Uneven wear in the middle of a protector

  1. Static disbalance of a wheel, perhaps, owing to an excessive vertical beating.

Strong wear of certain sites in the middle of a working surface of a protector

  1. Result of sharp braking.

Sawtooth wear of a protector, it is frequent together with a rupture of a fabric basis of the tire invisible outside

  1. Car overload. Check a condition of internal walls of tires.

Rubber uvulas on side edges of a protector (scaly wear)

  1. Adjustment of angles of installation of wheels is broken.
  2. Tires are worn-out.
  3. Shock-absorbers / the torsion springs / rack-mount assemblies are faulty.

Formation of agnails on one party of a protector of a forward wheel

  1. Adjustment of a convergence of wheels is broken.
  2. Tires are worn-out.
  3. Frequent movement on wavy surfaces. The Bystry movement on turns.

Ruptures of a cord. At first are visible only from within

  1. Moving through sharp stones, blows of tires, etc. at a high speed.

Unilateral wear of a working surface of a protector

  1. Check adjustment of disorder.
  2. Malfunction of ABS takes place, - check a state and reliability of fixing of terminal connection of mass of the returnable pump (in the hydromodulator).

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